• Users Online: 195
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 165-167

Correlation of perceived parenting patterns on the personality traits of medical students

Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, MMMC&H, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

Date of Submission19-Jun-2019
Date of Decision13-Aug-2019
Date of Acceptance16-Aug-2019
Date of Web Publication18-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Arun Kumar Tandon
Flat No. 22 A, MM Medical College, Residential Complex, Kumarhatti, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aip.aip_37_19

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Parents are children's primary nurturers, and the responsibility of proper guidance of their children falls on their shoulders. Each parent, however, differs in the way they interact with their children. Do these interactions correlate, in any way, with the way the personality traits that their children develop, when they grow up, is the question that has been tried to answer in this study. Methodology: The study was conducted on 100 MBBS students of the 4th year of MMMC and H Kumarhatti, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. Two self-administered questionnaires were administered to the students: (1) International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)- ICD 10 was used to screen for the personality traits of students and (2) the Perceptions of Parents Scale to assess the students' retrospective perception of their parents' methods of parenting. Result: MAS and FAS were found to be significantly negatively correlated with paranoid trait among students;MW was significantly negatively correlated with paranoid trait among students; and FI,FASand FW were significantly negatively correlated with borderline trait, and FI was significantly negatively correlated with dependant traits. Conclusion: Parenting style of both parents as seen in the study, does show correlation with development of some personality traits of their wards.

Keywords: International Personality Disorder Examination Scale, parenting styles, personality traits

How to cite this article:
Sharma P, Tandon AK. Correlation of perceived parenting patterns on the personality traits of medical students. Ann Indian Psychiatry 2019;3:165-7

How to cite this URL:
Sharma P, Tandon AK. Correlation of perceived parenting patterns on the personality traits of medical students. Ann Indian Psychiatry [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Feb 7];3:165-7. Available from: https://www.anip.co.in/text.asp?2019/3/2/165/273378

  Introduction Top

Growing up with great parents is a blessing in life, and the way a child is raised influences the kind of person he or she will become.[1] Parenting style is the manner in which the parent imparts emotional learning among adolescents along with the teaching of specific skills. Parenting style is defined as the attitude that parents have about childrearing.[2] It includes three features: (1) involvement (defined as the extent to which the parents are interested in, are knowledgeable about, and actively participate in the child's life); (2) autonomy support (defined as the degree to which the parents value their child's perspective and use techniques that encourage choice, self-initiation, and participation in making decisions); and (3) warmth (defined as the degree to which the parents are responsive and sensitive and regarding toward their child).[3] As these three (involvement, autonomy support, and warmth) satisfy the fundamental needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness and also facilitate the child's intrinsic motivation, so the child not only internalizes the parents' attitudes but also develops self-regulation abilities and gains emotional competence.

Parenting styles can be viewed according to two manners: either typological approach [4] or dimensional approach.[2] Unlike the typological approach, which focuses on measuring the parents' attitude for determining the parenting style, in dimensional approach, as is used in the present study, the criterion is the child's or adolescents' perception.

  Methodology Top

The study was conducted on 100 MBBS students of the 4th year of MMMC and H Kumarhatti, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. These students were explained about the study and the scales that they were required to complete, and afterward, with their consent and the ethics committee approval, they filled out the two self-administered questionnaires.

The International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)–Screening Questionnaire is a 69-item, validated scale, developed by the WHO for the study of personality disorders. The IPDE-ICD10 screening test was administered, and the personality traits were computed. IPDE demonstrated an inter-rater reliability and temporal stability similar to the instrument used to diagnose psychiatric disorder.[5]

The second questionnaire was the Perceptions of Parents Scale. It assesses the perception of their parents' autonomy support and involvement along with assessment of the degree to which the children perceive their parents' warmth. This questionnaire was designed by Robert J Robbins in the Department of Psychology at the University of Rochester under the supervision of Grolnick et al.[3]

Statistical tests

For the purpose of the present study, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson's correlation (r) were used, and the data were analyzed using SPSS software (IBM, SPSS version 21.0 Armonk NY:IBM Corp).

  Results Top

The mean and standard deviation values, for each of the personality traits, as well as the parenting types, were computed. Mean and standard deviation values of the personality traits were as follows: paranoid (2.86, 1.43), schizoid (3.66, 1.59), dissocial (1.40, 1.28), impulsive (2.60, 1.43), borderline (1.68, 1.29), histrionic (2.08, 1.46), anankastic (3.06, 1.86), anxious (2.80, 1.80), and dependent (2.00, 1.43). The parenting patterns included maternal involvement (35.90, 5.14), maternal autonomy support (49.82, 7.70), maternal warmth (37.62, 4.72), father involvement (33.52, 6.82), father autonomy support (49.28, 7.77), and father warmth (37.14, 7.15). Pearson's correlation (r) value was obtained from the mean and standard deviation scores that were obtained of the nine personality traits and six parenting styles. It (r) measures the amount of linear association between two variables. The results are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Pearson's correlation (r) values between the parenting styles and the personality traits of medical students

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

A study by Wintre and Yaffe [6] investigated that perceived parenting style, current relationships with parents, and psychological well-being was responsible for perceived overall adjustment to university, from both socio/emotional adaptation perspectives and actual academic achievement. Data were collected from a sample of 408 1st-year students attending university in a Canadian city. Results indicated that there was an indirect, positive relationship between authoritative parenting and adaptation variables.

Parenting style of both parents, as seen in our study, showed correlation with development of some personality traits of their wards: MAS and FAS were found to be significantly negatively correlated with paranoid trait among student; MW was significantly negatively correlated with dissocial trait; and FI, FAS, and FW were significantly negatively correlated with impulsive trait. MI and FAS were significantly negatively correlated with borderline trait, and FI was significantly negatively correlated with dependent traits. The father's role (father involvement, father autonomy support, and father warmth) thus should not be undervalued, in building up the adolescent's personality, especially in the Indian context, where as per the orthodox parenting patterns the father's role in parenting, is only for providing economic support and physical security.

Odiase and Ekechukwu [7] investigated the influences of parenting styles on the personality traits of 560 senior secondary school students in Rivers State which revealed that extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism personality traits were associated with the parenting styles. They said that every child was distinct and unique and therefore, parents should adopt appropriate parenting styles for each child. Masten [8] suggested that effective parents made youths feel worthwhile by their close relationships, open opportunities, and resources.

Traditionally, fears about the compatibility between orthodox notions of masculinity and active fatherhood, is now changing, especially in the West, with more interactive and affective paternal parenting styles.[9]

Future studies would help in understanding these issues.

Ethical statement

This study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee with reference number MMMC&H/ETH/16/106 obtained on 12th July 2016.

Declaration of Patient Consent

Patient consent statement was taken from each patient as per institutional ethics committee approval along with consent taken for participation in the study and publication of the scientific results / clinical information /image without revealing their identity, name or initials. The patient is aware that though confidentiality would be maintained anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Hong YR, Park JS. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development. Korean J Pediatr 2012;55:449-54.  Back to cited text no. 1
Darling N, Steinberg L. Parenting style as context, an integrative model. Psychol Bull 1993;113:487-97.  Back to cited text no. 2
Grolnick WS, Deci EL, Ryan RM. Internalization within the family: The self – Determination theory perspective. In: Grusec JE, Kuczynski L, editors. Parenting and Children's Internalization of Values: A Handbook of Contemporary Theory. New York: Wiley; 1997. p. 135-61.  Back to cited text no. 3
Baumrind D. Current pattern of parental authority. Dev Psychol 1971;4:1-103.  Back to cited text no. 4
Loranger AW. Personality Disorder Examination (PDE) Manual. Yonkers: DV Communications; 1988.  Back to cited text no. 5
Wintre MG, Yafe M. First-year students' adjustment to university life as a function of relationships with parents. J Adolesc Res 2000;15:9-37.  Back to cited text no. 6
Odiase JE, Ekechukwu R. Parenting styles and personality traits among senior secondary school students in rivers State Nigeria. West Afr Br J Psychol Res 2015;3:9-18.  Back to cited text no. 7
Masten A. Resilience in individual development: Successful adaptation despite risk and adversity. In: Wang MC, Gordon EW, editors. Educational Resilience in Inner-city America: Challenges and Prospects. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; Institute of Child Development 1994. p. 3-25.  Back to cited text no. 8
Lamb ME, Levine JA. The Swedish parental insurance policy: An experiment in social engineering. In: Lamb ME, Sagi A, editors. Fatherhood and Family Policy. Hillsdale JN: Erlbaum; 1983. p. 39-51.  Back to cited text no. 9


  [Table 1]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded175    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal